Wastewater treatment package a hospital Introduction In recent years, hospitals They are significant consumers of water per day and generate multiple times of wastewater Hospitals are increasing due to the development in the field of medicine. Wastewater Hospitals contain infectious and dangerous pollutants that must be removed before discharge The environment should be purified. Treatment of hospital wastewater (Hospital Wastewater) is one One of the most important and vital Parts of the country’s system in order to preserve water resources and prevent Environmental and biological hazards because it is one of the most dangerous wastewaters The waste produced is removed from the hospital environment.
What is hospital wastewater and why should it be refined? In general, sewage as a composition Physical, chemical and biological wastes in wastewater are defined. Wastewater Hospital sewage is sewage that is in quantities more than all hospital units including emergency room, first aid, operating room, Drug treatment, ICU, chemical and biological laboratories, radiology, lunch Relatively more eating and laundry activities are produced. Since the Hospital wastewater contains various potentially dangerous components that can pollute surface waters and Underground will cause many dangers for humans and the environment. therefore Hospital wastewater treatment is required. The main purpose of the hospital wastewater treatment plant is to treat the produced wastewater (purification sewage not) by hospitals and health departments before its direct release into the natural environment Is. Hospital wastewater is possible have a negative impact on the environment and human health. Therefore, the correct management of wastewater in each The hospital is essential.

Characteristics of hospital wastewater

Microbial pathogens, harmful bacteria and viruses
Drugs and their metabolites
Radioactive isotopes
Hazardous chemicals and heavy metals
Pharmaceutical waste

Below are the values of pH, TSS, BOD5, COD, TKN, TP, TC and THBC for a number of hospitals in Iran. According to these results, the minimum, maximum and average values of the quality parameters of hospital wastewater were investigated.

Hospital wastewater sources

Let us first mention the three important categories in which all hospital wastewater sources are placed, and then give examples for each of them. Sources that produce hospital wastewater or those that have a share in the production of hospital wastewater and must enter the industrial wastewater treatment process after production are divided into three categories, which are:

Blackwater: Hospital wastewater that is extremely It is contaminated and contains food residues, excreta Patients’ bodies and toxic substances are chemicals. Greywater: Graded hospital wastewater less intensity of pollution, which includes water collected from areas such as washing clothes, Laboratory processes, washing photographic films, dry cleaning, etc. have been produced. Rainwater or runoff (Stormwater): Technically, sewage water It is not, but the runoff collected from roofs, fields, yards, etc It is that after treatment of hospital wastewater, it can be directly used for sanitary services and land irrigation. In general, it can also be productive resources The hospital wastewater that is transferred to treat the hospital wastewater as described mentioned below: Kitchens and dining halls Research laboratories and Medical diagnostic Laundry centers operating room, ICU, CCU, Radiology and dialysis unit Toilets that are up to the limit Many of its effluents contain unmetabolized drugs. Dental departments Wastewater produced from Parts engineering and repair center Hazards of hospital wastewater If the health system of the countries are Development fully with hazardous and harmful aspects of effluents and wastewater produced from environments Hospitals and medical clinics are familiar with the idea of equipping these centers with the system Advanced wastewater treatment They will be hospitals. In this section, we are going to discuss the dangers of these wastes if not Applying advanced and effective hospital wastewater treatment: Contaminating local water supplies Pollution of natural resources and living beings; Especially in countries without hospital wastewater treatment advanced mixed with urban wastewater and entered after not very efficient treatment rivers and the environment Some substances in sewage It is decomposed by algae in lakes etc. and causes oxygen consumption and explosion their population and biotoxin production Due to the presence of a high percentage of Medicines in hospital wastewater, ineffective practices Treatment of hospital wastewater causes them to enter nature and return these substances Most of the drugs that are designed to be resistant cause disorders and diseases into the waters There are many internal glands Undegraded antibiotic causes Pathogens mutate and antibiotic-resistant species appear Mercury and heavy metal poisoning They create in any environment The cause of the spread of dangerous diseases Such as cholera, hepatitis A and E, typhoid fever, etc., are transmitted through water The reason for the increase in the population of worms It becomes parasites and disease carriers It causes waste of water resources Because a part of hospital wastewater treatment can be reused at the end of the process used

نقش داروها در فاضلاب بیمارستانی

داروها بخصوص مواردی که بدون تجویز
پزشک امکان خرید و مصرف ندارند و یا برخی داروهایی که فقط در بیمارستان­ها تزریق
می­گردند یکی از بخش ­های تشکیل دهنده­
اصلی در فاضلاب
بیمارستانی و از بخش­
های بسیار مهمی
است که حتما باید تحت سیستم 
فاضلاب بهداشتی
 پیشرفته قرار
بگیرند تا به خوبی متابولیزه شوند، در غیر این صورت اثرات بسیار مضری بر روی
اکوسیستم و طبیعت خواهند گذاشت. البته باید توجه داشت برخی داروها که مصرف عمومی
دارند، در فاضلاب خانگی و در نتیجه شهری نیز دیده می­شوند

طبق تحقیقات انجام شده بسته به نوع و میزان
پایداری داروها، بین
۴۰ تا ۸۰% آن کاملا بدون تغییر از روش ­های دفعی مختلف
از بدن افراد خارج می ­شوند و داروهایی که در چربی محلول هستند نیز در پساب یا فاضلاب
بیمارستانی حل نمی­شوند و وارد چرخه­
محیط زیست خواهند
شد که این یکی از شیوه ­های اثر داروها بر محیط زیست در این نوع فاضلاب در نبود
سیستم تصفیه پساب بیمارستانی قدرتمند و پیشرفته است

ضمنا در برخی موارد نیز داروها به علت اهداف
درمانی بسیار مقاوم طراحی شده ­اند در نتیجه در طبیعت به زودی از بین نمی­روند و
اثرات مضر آنها تا مدت زمان زیادی در طبیعت باقی خواهد ماند که باز هم دلیل دیگری
بر الزام وجود سیستم تصفیه فاضلاب خانگی است. در حالت کلی اگر بخواهیم داروهای
اثرگذار بر محیط زیست را در فاضلاب بیمارستانی نام ببریم در دسته‌­­های زیر قرار

  • داروهای هورمونی
  • داروهای رادیواکتیو مثل ید
  • آنتی بیوتیک­ها
  • عوامل کشنده و متوقف کننده­ رشد


instructions Hospital wastewater treatment Given that the microorganism Many dangerous things such as viruses, bacteria, germs , mushrooms, etc There are hospital wastewaters, and the wastewater treatment in this environment includes pre-treatment Solid and liquid materials that must be disposed of tips and instructions Health rules should be followed. Instructions which is related to the method of sanitary disposal Hospital wastewater in order to reduce the risks as well as treat hospital wastewater as Downstream processes will be provided According to the World Health Organization or WHO.
Sanitary disposal of materials Laboratory medicine To dispose of these substances, neutralization of acid-base, filtration is required and performed sedimentation or autoclaving and then disposed of it to treat hospital wastewater be done. Faeces or sewage material caused by Vomit Calcium hydroxide solution in a ratio of 1 to 2 for Said materials for 6 hours And the ratio of 1 to 1 should be done for 2 hours for urine excretion in the hospital environment and then to the septic tank To be transported to the hospital for wastewater treatment. blood fluids Blood fluids if no tests Do not show dangerous and harmful substances, do not have special hygiene instructions for disposal And it can be transferred directly to septic tanks for hospital wastewater treatment Otherwise, these liquids should be heated and then enter the tank of the purification system did Dental materials If the said hospital is a part related to have dental services, amalgam materials must be placed in separate sinks and Do not enter hospital wastewater treatment tanks, while mercury-containing materials such as Amalgam should be stored separately. Hygienic disposal of radiotherapy department materials Promulgated guidelines for sanitary disposal Radiotherapy department materials such as urine of patients undergoing thyroid scan treatment with iodine materials They have been radioactive and should be placed in safe containers after reducing the concentration of the effective substance Enter the hospital wastewater treatment tanks, otherwise, they are directly disposed of Inside the nature, the life of the living creatures of the environment will face serious danger.

Kitchen waste and dining halls

Waste materials from the kitchen and dining halls of the hospital can be pre-purified with the help of special filters to remove oil and other suspended substances insoluble in water and then dispose of them for purification.

Future approaches in dealing with hospital wastewater treatment

Treatment of hospital wastewater is very sensitive because many dangerous and toxic substances are released from it, which in case of non-treatment or inefficient treatment will cause the spread of new diseases and endanger human lives and the local environment. The purpose of installing a hospital wastewater treatment system that is in accordance with the world’s current technology is several times more important than a home wastewater treatment system.

From the past to the present, different approaches have been used in order to treat hospital wastewater according to the technology of its time, which are as follows:

Direct Disposal: a very old and outdated method that all countries are required to follow.
Mixed with Municipal Sewage or Centralized: In this method, the wastewater of all areas and places, including domestic, industrial, agricultural, hospital, etc. enters the common municipal sewage, which unfortunately is done in developing countries in a way that there is no efficient system for advanced purification.

Treatment of hospital wastewater in the form of pre-treatment or On-Site Treatment and then discharge into the environment: an efficient, affordable and advanced method that greatly reduces the risks of the produced wastewater.

On-site treatment of hospital wastewater in the form of pre-treatment and then re-treatment by combining it with municipal wastewater: a very advanced method in such a way that up to 99% of the produced wastewater is treated and its environmental risks are eliminated, but compared to the third method It will cost much more, so the third case is being done in most countries of the world.

Important factors for system design Hospital wastewater treatment To design an efficient system for purification Hospital wastewater should consider three very important factors: Volume of produced wastewater The volume of waste water produced as a result of water entering the The hospital environment is the number of beds and patients, the type of hospital, the number of departments It has a clinic for radiotherapy, dentistry, photography, etc., which usually Up to 95% of the imported water is turned into sewage, which is needed It is evident in hospital wastewater treatment. Qualitative analysis of wastewater According to the type and source of pollution What was said for the hospital’s wastewater is quite clear that there is a well-equipped system And advanced for hospital wastewater treatment is strongly felt with a high percentage Nearly 99% purification and cleaning to do

Wastewater treatment plant output standard

It is definitely necessary to design an efficient hospital wastewater treatment that greatly reduces the risks caused by this wastewater and even a part of it can be used to irrigate the fields and trees around the hospital (considering that edible trees are not planted in the hospital environment). Flush tanks, toilets, etc. were reused.

In addition, note that in addition to the above for the design of an advanced hospital wastewater treatment system, which are very important and must be considered; The following factors are also important:

Location: The hospital wastewater treatment device should be in a large space, away from nearby residential buildings and drinking water pipes, and should not be installed on lands with soft soil or subject to flooding.
Supporting infrastructure and quality repairs: Hospital wastewater treatment is by using its own equipment, which must be accompanied by supporting infrastructure such as a generator and purchased from a reliable center, in this field, Ati Sazan Arsham Sanat Group is the most reliable and largest provider center. This is the service.

Ati Sazan Arsham Sanat Group, with years of experience and providing superior services in the field of advanced devices for hospital wastewater treatment, is the best option for equipping hospitals and clinics with the most advanced and standard devices that comply with all the guidelines of the World Health Organization. has been

Advantages of using wastewater treatment Ati Sazan Arsham Sanat Hospital Most likely, by now you have realized the benefits and necessity The existence of a hospital wastewater treatment system How much for the health of the environment, humans and all living things useful. But it is not bad on a case-by-case basis to the benefits of using the sewage treatment system Let’s mention a hospital: Wastewater treatment system A hospital, especially the type used in the third method, is always affordable and efficient and even its maintenance costs are reasonable To avoid contamination The environment and the non-destruction of the animal and plant population is absolutely necessary The amount of harmful substances that enter The cycles of nature are very low and almost are completely gone From the spread and emergence of diseases New and many are prevented by contaminated and toxic substances does Due to the reduction of pollution in Naturally, the need to use advanced disinfection systems has decreased And the government’s side costs are greatly reduced Because of usability Reusing wastewater, water consumption in hospitals will decrease, especially for the current conditions It is wonderful that all countries are facing a water shortage crisis in some way Secondary sludges that for Activated sludge process is recycled, it has many biodegradable materials. this The materials can be processed with the help of anaerobic bacteria and under 35 grade in a special compartment that does not need to be decomposed They do not have oxygen. The result of this process is the production of a large amount of methane for Electricity production will be used. This final product is even for the power supply of the device itself or hospital wastewater treatment system, to reduce dependence on energy Non-renewables like fossil fuels can also be used. The remaining sludge from the previous step is dried to become natural fertilizers become These fertilizers are used for the agricultural sector and increase the production of crops become The same advantage in reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and environmental pollution and seawater is used, which is another example of the need to use a hospital wastewater treatment system. Wastewater treatment system design guide a hospital Given that hospitals water consumption are very high and the wastewater produced in them (Hospital Wastewater) is also high, the need for a hospital wastewater treatment system It is felt very separately, which is unfortunately less the case in developing countries It can be seen. In developing countries, many hospitals are individually lacking There are hospital wastewater treatment systems and the wastewater produced in them goes directly into the sewer It becomes a city and there is also a lot of purification system There are no improvements. Microbial, viral, fungal, etc. contaminations enter the environment It turns out that not only the life of aquatic and terrestrial organisms but also humans are threatened And over time, they increase the spread of diseases.  
In general, the evolution of the system from the beginning until now Treatment of hospital wastewater to remove a very high percentage of contaminants and disease The origin of hospital wastewater was as follows: Hospital wastewater treatment to Direct discharge form: Fortunately, this method It is obsolete Refinement by mixing with Urban sewage: Unfortunately, most of this method is done On-Site wastewater treatment system and then discharge In the environment: the most economical and best available method that It is recommended On-site pretreatment and then mixing With municipal sewage for further treatment: a more expensive method But it is much more successful than case 3 in reducing the risks of released wastewater.

Steps of the hospital wastewater treatment process

In this part, we are going to describe the steps of the hospital wastewater treatment system, which was the third among the types of treatment methods at the beginning of the article, because it is considered the best and most efficient type in addition to the affordable cost in hospital systems:
Preliminary or Pretreatment Stage

At this stage of the hospital wastewater treatment system, the goal is to remove solids, minerals and even sticky materials and non-mineral solids, which is done with the help of its filter and garbage collection chamber, and at the same time, in the next stages, it avoids damage to many parts. Sensitive system is prevented.
Primary Treatment Stage

This stage of the hospital wastewater treatment system is for the physical separation of solids and particles of oil and fat from the hospital effluent, which are purified through filters, clarifiers, and grease traps. With the help of these materials, during several hours of stagnation, solid and suspended materials are settled and lighter materials are placed on top of it to be removed from the tank. The settled materials of this stage are known as primary sludge, which consists of solid particles between 60 and 70%.

Secondary purification stage or Secondary Treatment Stage At this stage of biological treatment It is done to remove dissolved inorganic substances that exist in solution and colloidal form that help is taken from bacteria. Effluent that has been partially purified in the previous stage It is transferred from the primary tank to the aeration tank, and then through the blowers, oxygen is supplied The need for the function of microbes is provided. Effluent at this stage of the sewage treatment system A hospital enters secondary clarifiers similar to the primary type of solids deposit and form secondary sludge. Part of the secondary sludge in this part of the system Hospital wastewater treatment is recycled for the activated sludge process and the residue is also The primary sludge is combined to be sent to the sludge digestion tank and then disposed of. The efficiency of this A step equivalent to removing 90% of inorganic solids Is. The third stage of purification or advanced purification This stage of the hospital wastewater treatment system Suspended and organic solids that were not removed in the second step deletes Microorganisms that were used for digestion during the process Disinfection is removed. Several antidotes Disinfectant according to the level of transparency and pH, etc like chlorine, UV, ozone, etc. Now step It is ready to be discharged into the environment (in the third method and currently under discussion) or transfer to the city sewage for treatment More (fourth method) or reuse.