Sewage pumping station Sewage lift station

Sewage pumping station is a system consisting of one or more sludge pumps and crushers, which are placed in series in a package called Lift Station. This package is made of double-walled polyethylene, and has channels and pipes for receiving and pumping sewage from a lower level to a higher level. Also, the system has a switchboard and wiring that is responsible for planning and directing the package to identify the amount of wastewater and start it when needed.

A sewage pumping station is built from a large reservoir known as a wet well. This tank acts as a receiver of wastewater from a building or a group of buildings. Sewage from private houses flows into the wet well. After that, the wastewater sits in the well until it reaches a predetermined level.

After reaching this level, the septic pump comes into operation. That is, it puts pressure on the sewage to move from the wet well, upwards, until it enters the main sewer. or to be able to enter the main sewer using gravity.

Sewage pumping station design

Although pumping is not one of the main design processes of water and wastewater treatment facilities by engineering method, at the same time, it is considered as an important auxiliary and supplementary facility. In general, the use of pumps and the use of pumping operations in the plans related to water supply lines and wastewater collection, transfer and treatment facilities is to provide additional head to raise the fluid from a lower level to a higher level. In water distribution networks, pumps may be used outside the network as water supply pumps to supply water from external sources, or inside the network as booster pumps to provide pressure in the system.

In the collection networks and sewage transmission lines, in areas where the topography is inappropriate and heterogeneous, or the slope of the land does not provide the speed and other characteristics and hydraulic components of the flow, it is inevitable to use the sewage pumping station or lifting stations to guide and Used to transfer wastewater to downstream facilities.

Normally, the sewage transfer pipe, which is responsible for directing the sewage to the construction site of the treatment plant, enters the treatment facility at a lower height than the ground level due to gravity flow at the entrance to the treatment plant. Therefore, it is necessary to predict sewage pumping facilities to carry sewage to treatment units. For this reason, pumping stations can be considered as the first operational part of treatment plants.

Sewage pumping package tank

Reservoirs are one of the most important parts used in sewage pumping of buildings, complexes and all places whose incoming sewage is located under the city sewer. In fact, after storing the wastewater in the tank of the pumping station, the wastewater inside the tank is pumped to the city sewer or sewage well. Usually, different types can be used to produce these tanks. But most of them face problems in sewage pumping over time and disappear.

The tanks that are most used today in the construction of pumping system tanks can be produced in the form of single-walled polyethylene tanks and double-walled polyethylene tanks.

  • Polyethylene tankcan be used to store drinking and sanitary water and to some extent to store acids with low corrosiveness. This type of tanks can be produced in a variety of horizontal and vertical shapes. Of course, it can also be used to store sewage and use it as a reservoir for the sewage pumping system. Due to the acidity of wastewater, lack of burying ability and low thickness, these types of tanks will disappear over time. Therefore, it is suggested not to use this type of tank in the sewage lift station.
  • The double-walled polyethylene tank is one of the best and most resistant types of tank for drinking water, sewage and all kinds of chemical and acidic fluids up to 112 degrees. This type of tank can be produced horizontally and vertically with a resistance of 31.5 and 64 kilonewtons. The double-walled polyethylene tank can be used for the construction of a sewage pumping station, both buried and non-buried, due to the long life of this type of tank without damaging the body of the device. Due to the acidity of the wastewater, the double-walled polyethylene tank is the best option to use it for pumping stations. This type of tank can be used in different weather conditions. The double-wall tank can be used with all types of inlet and outlet according to the client’s plan and for all types of human and industrial wastewater.

Pumps at the pumping station

Sludge pump or floor pump is used for pumping sewage. Choosing the right pump for pumping stations depends on the sewage flow rate, vertical and horizontal distance of the transfer path, path pressure drop calculations, type of sewage (heavy, gray, kitchen, rain, etc.), project location, acidity level of the sewage and some other factors. It has.

Each pumpSewage pumping package must transport wastewater from the temporary storage point (sewage storage tank) to the final destination. The material of the pump can be made of all steel or cast iron. The brand of pumps used can be one of the reliable European or Chinese brands. Generally, the use of Granfus, Abara, Levara, Pentax, etc. pumps is more preferable than Chinese models. The sludge pump can be equipped with a crusher, the use of the crusher depends on the type of waste produced.

Usually, two pumps are used in sewage pumping stations. One pump is running and the other pump is out of circuit and on standby. The way the pumps are coupled is that either the pumps are changed on an hourly basis, or the replacement pump enters the circuit only if the main pump fails or fails. Also, pumps can be changed daily.

Applications of sewage pumping package

  • When the cost of underground works that allow sewage to flow by gravity exceeds the cost of the sewage pumping package.
  • When the sewer line passes over a ridge.
  • Where gravity system is not built.
  • If the basement floor is too low to allow sewage to flow by gravity.

Advantages of using sewage pumping station

  • A sewage pumping station offers convenience when installing a sewage system and has the potential to reduce construction costs.
  • The pumping stations are equipped with remote control systems that update the operators.
  • Sewage is pumped automatically without human contact, which eliminates the risk of health problems.
  • Various pump sizes are available for home use and commercial applications.
  • Consumption pumps are often used to prevent blockages
  • Sewage can be automatically pumped to higher elevations.
  • Sewage pumping systems are equipped with alarms to warn of system problems.
  • This quickly warns of the danger of sewage overflow.

Disadvantages of using a sewage lift station

  • The design and installation of the sewage pumping system must be done expertly to ensure that the system is reliable and suitable for use. This need for expertise means it can be costly.
  • Although these systems generally do not use much energy, but despite the system

Water distribution network – water transfer – water supply

Water distribution network or water transmission or water supply is a set of interconnected pipes that are used to transfer and distribute water in a set. The designer, executive and contractor of the water distribution network and water supply system should pay attention to things such as the type of water distribution network, water pressure, water speed, design flow rate, minimum pipe diameter, pipe material and many other things.

Definition of water distribution network

A hydraulic interconnected set including pipes, fittings and equipment used for water supply.

Different parts of a water supply system

Water source: includes surface water sources such as rivers, dams and lakes and underground water sources such as wells, springs and aqueducts.

Water transfer system: includes the water transfer path between the water source, the treatment plant and the water tanks.

Water treatment plant: If the water source does not have the required quality, it is used to purify the water to the required standard.

Water tanks: It is used to store water and also in many cases to supply the pressure of the water distribution network and includes ground and air water tanks.

Water distribution network: It is used to transfer and distribute water to consumers.


Important parameters in the design of urban water distribution network pipes

The most important factors and parameters in the design and implementation of water distribution networks are as follows.

water pressure
water speed
Pipe design discharge
Minimum diameter of pipes

Types of water distribution network in terms of piping method

The types of piping in the water distribution network are as follows:

Water distribution branch network
Circular water distribution network
Mixed network of water distribution

Types of water distribution network in terms of pressure supply system

The types of water distribution network pressure supply system are as follows:

Gravitational network of the first type
Gravitational network of the second type
Composite gravity network
Gravity-pumping network
Direct pumping network
Direct pumping network with air tank control

Important things in piping the water transmission network

The life of the pipe according to the life of the design
Pipe resistance against internal and external corrosion and selection of appropriate coating and resistance to environmental factors
The resistance of the pipe against internal and external pressures, the vulnerability of the pipe against possible shocks also during transportation

The deformation of the pipe against external forces and its effects on the inner coating, the roughness coefficient of the inner wall of the pipe and its changes during the design period, taking into account the ability to pass through winding areas, predicting the repairs of the water supply network, the price and cost of preparing and installing pipes Water distribution network

Modeling of water distribution network – water supply network

Water GEMS software is the most important and most common software for modeling and designing water supply networks. Other programs include Water Cad, EPANET and Loop.

The cost of implementing the water distribution network

The cost of running a water distribution network depends on many things, including the population of the project, the type of piping, the type of pipes, the conditions of the pipes passing, etc.

What are hydraulic structures?

We all know that most of the water resources are located in places such as rivers, lakes, underground water reservoirs and behind dams. In order to use these water reserves, first of all, they must be exploited and then transferred to the desired place for consumption. During this process, from exploitation to consumption, different structures are used, which are called hydraulic or water structures.

What are the types of hydraulic structures?

There are different types of hydraulic structures and their use depends on the type of water source and the purpose of use. In any case, in general, among the most important hydraulic structures, we can mention all kinds of dams, pipes and piping, canals, underpasses, flumes, conversions, siphons, breakwaters, rapids, water flow regulation structures. According to the type of use, water or hydraulic structures can be included in the following categories.

Water transfer structures

This type is actually the type of hydraulic structures that are used to transport water from the point of origin to the point of destination. The importance of these structures doubles when we face natural and artificial complications and obstacles on the way. Among these hydraulic structures, we can mention the channel, road underpass or culvert and reverse siphon.

Water control and regulation structures

These hydraulic structures are used to regulate and control water flow and water level. From this category of water structures, we can mention regulator and breakwater.

Measuring structures

This type of hydraulic structures is meant to measure and measure the amount of passing water flow and to measure flow parameters such as overflows and orifices.

Protective structures

As the name of this type of hydraulic structures suggests, these are used to protect the water transmission system from possible damage, protect the lands and equipment around them, as well as the people involved.< /strong>

Hydraulic structure of the channel

Channels are one of the most widely used types of hydraulic structures because they have a simple design and implementation, high flexibility when faced with natural and artificial effects, and a high variety of geometric shapes. On the other hand, their use pursues different goals, and depending on this goal, different types of channels can be used. In general, the most important purposes of using the channel can be summarized in the following items.

  • Irrigation and drainage of lands with different uses
  • Water supply to urban and rural areas
  • Sewage discharge in urban and industrial areas
  • Shipping
  • Direction of dam and river water towards turbines

The shape and type of channel that is used is controlled by factors such as the capacity of the structure, the speed of flow, the stability of the structure and issues related to its operation and maintenance. Rectangular, trapezoidal, triangular, circular and horseshoe are among the most important types of channels based on shape.

Conversion hydraulic structure

  • Transformation, which has different types in terms of use and shape, is one of the most widely used hydraulic structures used in water supply and water transmission networks. Right-corner, round-corner, straight-line and streamline transformations are the main types of transformations. Conversions are considered to be part of short hydraulic structures whose use pursues various purposes, among which the following can be mentioned.
  • Use when we expect a certain hydraulic behavior from the water flow.
  • due to the geometrical shape of the conduit, there is a need to reduce or increase the cross section of the conduit or any other shape changes.

underpass structure or culvert

Underpass, as one of the types of hydraulic or water structures, is actually a structure that is used to transfer and direct water from under the road, railway or other canals. Underpasses are designed and executed in the form of a conduit with full flow or a conduit with open flow, which is the common feature of different types of underpasses. The material of this hydraulic structure can be metal, concrete and wood.

shed tanks

One of the most important parts in building a shed is knowing the components of the shed, which is very important for builders. Don’t forget that each of the components of the shed, with their special features, are responsible for a unique task in erecting the structure. If you also want to build this structure; Don’t miss this article from Ati Sazan Arshan Sanat for a complete introduction of the most important components of the shed.

Introduction of the components of the shed

In order to know the components that make up the shed, we must first provide a brief explanation about each of them, and after that, we will introduce the components of the shed in order to get familiar with the use and function of each one, and we will give a full explanation of some of them.

  • The task of bearing the load, earthquake, wind and the weight of the structure is the column, which is one of the main components of the shed.
  • Prlin is responsible for transferring the load to the frames; that commands are z-shaped.
  • The wind brace of the body has the task of transferring power from the roof and column to the foundation and the ground.
  • The roof windbreak also increases the resistance and strength of the roof by transmitting the wind force through the frames.
  • Segrad, as a brace, is responsible for adjusting the hardness of the angle of the purlins and the opening.
  • Rafter, which is another name for that frame, is one of the most importantcomponents of the shed, the task of this part is to transfer the load from the roof to the column strong>.
  • The wind column or wall post also play an important role in maintaining the walls in the main frames from the beginning to the end of the structure.
  • Balcony is also another part of the shed, which shows its use in the shed by preventing direct sunlight from shining on the sides of the structure and transferring snow and rain on the roof.< /strong>

What is shed behavior?

At first, we should say that the main frame of the shed is called a frame, which is a set of beams and columns. This section is one of the most important components of the shed, which, along with the columns, form the main frames of the shed. The other name of Rafter Sule is Tirshibdar. In Aryan Saz, the columns and rafters have a non-prismatic structure due to the anchor changes, which are implemented with variable length and width, this helps to make the construction cost of the shed economically affordable. If the size of the opening of the built shed is large, the dimensions of the columns and rafters should also be made larger than the ready-to-buy profiles in the market. In this case, they should be implemented on the structure in the form of beams instead of buying the profiles available in the market. After the purchased sheets are cut to size, they are joined together using welding, so that the column and beam can be made to the desired size. After that, the prepared column is connected to the rafter from the top with a flange connection and from the bottom to the column plate.

What is the ceiling purlin?

After introducing the main frames, it is time to introduce the wardrobe or plain. This piece is similar to the sub-beams of the roof of the seasons, and they are placed at pre-determined distances along the length of the shed between the main frames. These parts bear the weight that is applied to them from the side of the roof covering, so they play a very important role between the components of the shed. In the meantime, screws and special connecting corners can connect the purlins to the rafters of the main frames of the structure, which we will examine in the following.

Sagrad in Sule

Another name for Segrad in the shed is three shafts of ceiling braces. The point that we must state here is that the weakness of the lobes is due to gravity loads, which in this way expose them to lateral torsional buckling. That’s why the task of Sagrad in the shed is to keep the slats or purlins to compensate for their weak section. By transferring the tensile component from the gravity forces to the top of the shed, Segrad creates a balancing anchor for the weak axis of the slabs and thus prevents their lateral torsional buckling. These parts are connected using block screws, and sometimes rebar sections are used as roof braces in shed construction.

Crane in shed

Cranes are one of the most inseparable components of sheds because they are widely used in shed construction. One of the most used types of cranes for construction is the overhead crane, which is used in the form of two bridges and one bridge in transverse and longitudinal modes. A beam called the porter beam is placed on another beam called the sitting beam