Composite wastewater treatment package made of composite material generally means the combination of several materials or composite materials. This word is used when two phases are present in the formation of a matrix and also the second phase is used at least 5%. In fact, in composites, there is a main phase and a reinforcing phase, and generally, these composite structures show new properties compared to their raw materials. Composites are made because the new material created from the raw materials is more resistant, lighter or cheaper.
The most common type of glass fiber used to make GRP tanks is E-glass, which is an aluminum borosilicate glass. E-CR glass with its high electrical and chemical resistance is also commonly used in applications that require high protection against acid corrosion.
Like many other composite materials, these two materials complement each other to form a stronger composite. The glass fibers used in GRP are very strong in terms of stress resistance. By combining these two materials, GRP becomes a material that resists compressive and tensile forces well. GRP production methods include filament winding, centrifugal casting, manual nucleation, layer spray, and refining. GRP has many useful properties.
This material is an exceptional material with low weight, high mechanical strength, resistance to chemicals and corrosion, ultraviolet radiation and temperature stability. GRP is waterproof, making it ideal for all outdoor applications. Fire-resistant GRP can be produced by using non-flammable resins, hence GRP is used in the construction of composite sewage treatment packages, which we will examine in the following.
Types of composite materials used in the wastewater treatment industry
Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP)
Reinforced glass plastic (Reinforced Glass Plastic) is a composite material that consists of a polymer matrix and glass fibers. The polymer matrix is usually a thermoplastic epoxy, vinyl ester, or polyester resin. Resin is a factor for mechanical and chemical resistance of the product. The glass fibers in GRP add strength to the composite.
Fiberglass composite material (FRP)
FRP fiber-reinforced plastic (also called fiber-reinforced polymer), is a composite material made from a fiber-reinforced polymer matrix. Glass (in fiberglass) and carbon (in carbon fiber reinforced polymer) fibers are usually aramid or basalt. Of course, other fibers such as paper, wood or asbestos are rarely used. These polymers are usually an epoxy, vinyl ester, or polyester. Of course, phenol-formaldehyde resins are still used. FRPs are used in the aerospace industry and this composite is used in the manufacture of ballistic armor.
Common composite materials in the wastewater treatment industry
Reinforced concrete and masonry
Wood composite like three-layer composite
Reinforced plastics such as fiber reinforced polymer or fiberglass
Ceramic matrix composites
Metal matrix composites
Other advanced composite materials
Uses of composite materials
Composite materials are generally used for buildings, bridges and structures such as boat hooks, swimming pool panels, tubs, storage tanks, marble sinks, sewage treatment equipment, etc. More advanced examples of composites are also used in airplanes and spacecraft. Composites can be used in the wastewater treatment industry in two ways.
The use of different types of composites, including nanocomposites, activated carbon composites, polymer composites, oxide-based composites, combined composites and biosorbent composites, etc., which are used for industrial wastewater treatment. In sanitary, industrial, hospital, etc., heavy metals such as lead, mercury, nickel, copper, zinc, these wastewaters are first physically treated, then chemical removal methods are applied to remove said pollutants. The use of the mentioned composites in chemical purification and chemical absorption and removal of these pollutants is very effective, cheap and high quality.
In the second case, the composite wastewater treatment package is used. In this way, the treatment system is based on the same conventional treatment systems, and only the treatment units and the material of the body and tools in the composite wastewater treatment package are different. Fiberglass is used in this package. If you study about the material of the body and their construction, you will see two abbreviations: FRP and GRP.
But what is the difference between these two substances? Fibre-reinforced plastic or FRP is the correct term, but in common terms, GRP or Glassfibre Reinforced Plastics is also used for the same concept as fiberglass. So, if you see any of these abbreviations to buy a composite sewage treatment package, know that they are both the same thing.
Common FRP or fiberglass products
Most FRP products, such as storage tanks, duct systems, piping systems, chimney liners, etc., are cylindrical in shape. At the same time, due to the possibility of combining fiberglass with other elements, such as carbon, their use is increasing day by day. Lightness, smooth surfaces and insulation are good and important properties of this type of products.
Composite wastewater treatment package
It has high quality, high efficiency, high durability, light weight and easy installation. These packages are used for sanitary wastewater treatment, industrial wastewater treatment, etc. This package is cost effective in all respects, as FRP is corrosion resistant, high pressure resistant and leak free.
Composite wastewater treatment package components and how they work
These units remove suspended matter, ammonia, arsenic, iron and fluoride. It also facilitates the growth of microorganisms that digest and remove organic pollutants. The parts in this unit also include filtration membranes that help clean sewage and sedimentation.
ABR anaerobic system in composite packages
This unit is the anaerobic baffled reactor. This unit includes a series of chambers and the wastewater is purified after entering each of these chambers. Chambers are advanced septic tanks. ABRs are robust and also have high filtration efficiency, which is why it is important to use them. Of course, it should be noted that in order to treat the sludge left over from the treatment process, separate processes should be considered.
Microorganisms can be found in raw water from rivers, lakes, and groundwater. While not all microorganisms are harmful to human health, there are some that may cause disease in humans. These microorganisms are called pathogens. Pathogens in water can grow and multiply and can also be transported through the drinking water distribution system and cause illness in people who consume the water. In order to deal with water-borne diseases, various disinfection methods are used to inactivate pathogenic agents.
Along with other water purification processes such as coagulation, sedimentation, purification and chlorination, it causes disinfection of water and wastewater, which ultimately affects the safety of purified water and wastewater in terms of the presence of microorganisms. Chlorination is one of the many methods that can be used to disinfect water. This method was first used more than a century ago and is still used today. During this method, materials that produce chlorine are used in the chlorination unit. (chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite).
Advantages of chlorination in the composite wastewater treatment package
The chlorination unit is used to disinfect wastewater and destroy microorganisms and pathogenic organisms. One of the main advantages of the chlorination unit in the composite wastewater treatment package is its affordability. Mostly, in this unit, some sodium hypochlorite or potassium hypochlorite is added to the wastewater and the dose of chlorine is provided in this way.
Another advantage of the chlorine disinfection tank is that the dose of chlorine is maintained in the sewage transfer pipes, and the wastewater is protected from contamination caused by microorganisms even during the transfer process. The third advantage of using chlorine for wastewater treatment in the composite wastewater treatment package is the high effectiveness of the method on most microorganisms, of course there are exceptions.
It is resistant to electric charge and pressure.
It does not require electrical energy.
It has a low operating cost.
It has a long life.
Reduces BODs to a great extent.
The sludge from this process is low and also the sludge is stabilized.
This system can be buried underground and therefore does not need a separate space.
Disadvantages of chlorination unit
Chlorine, as a strong oxidizer, destroys the structure of microorganisms, but the problem begins where some microorganisms are resistant to chlorine and reduce the effectiveness of the method. The chlorination unit in the composite wastewater treatment package is an agent to break down the microorganisms, but it is also to produce a food source for the rest of the micro-organisms. Chlorine-resistant bacteria feed and reproduce from these organic sources, and this is one of the disadvantages of chlorine. On the other hand, chlorine affects the pH to some extent and makes it more acidic.
Long start-up phase
It needs an expert to design and build.
It does not have a high ability to reduce pathogens.
The remaining sludge needs further treatment.
The removal of the remaining sludge should be done in consecutive times, otherwise the quality of the effluent after treatment will be very low.
It needs water for washing.
Anoxic processes are commonly used to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Nitrogen is first converted to nitrate during denitrification, which typically occurs in an aerobic treatment process such as trickling. Then the nitrated water is exposed to the environment.
Microorganisms in this system, without the presence of oxygen, use nitrate as an electron acceptor and actually provide the required oxygen in this way. In this case, nitrogen is released as N2 gas. This process can also occur for sulfates, in which case hydrogen sulfide is released.
Anoxic attached growth reactors
The main form of this reactor is a submerged pond, in which filters are also used in some cases. During this process, the wastewater flows down the filter and mixes with the carbon source. As a carbon source, it is possible to use open sludge that has been purified, but sometimes compounds such as methanol can also be used as a carbon source.
Integrated Fixed Bed Activated Sludge Reactor System (IFAS)
This unit is a new and advanced technology. IFAS wastewater treatment unit was created by combining two units and the fixed bed and activated sludge method, in order to use the advantages of both methods. The activated sludge process, which has been used for biological treatment for a long time, on the other hand, the fixed bed process has excellent stability and resistance after the treatment of organic substances. The combination of these two methods creates the advantages of both methods in one unit.
Advantages of IFAS activated sludge reactor
The combination of activated sludge and biofilm methods is stable and increases the holding time of sludge and increases nitrate more than simple growth systems.
Nitrification of the system is also faster because a large mass of nitrifier is kept in the fixed film.
Process stability increases.
Sludge production decreases.
Disadvantages of IFAS
A lot of energy is needed. (for example aeration)
Obtaining the required spare parts is more difficult than other methods.
Construction costs are high.
It requires specialized knowledge.
Static settling unit
In all treatment plants, sedimentation tanks are used to settle suspended particles and solids in wastewater. Sedimentation tanks create the stillness required for solids coagulation. Before the wastewater enters this unit, chemicals are added to it for coagulation. The difference between this unit and the normal sedimentation tanks is that during the purification and sedimentation process, a device collects the sludge resulting from the purification in a timed and automatic manner.
Prefabricated composite sewage treatment package
Prefabricated composite wastewater treatment packages are made using advanced techniques and technology and can be used for decentralized wastewater treatment processes. Not only can they be used for wastewater treatment, but they can also be used for agricultural purposes. When centralized urban wastewater treatment plants are not available, this package is suitable for wastewater treatment.
Features of the composite wastewater treatment package
Most FRP products such as ETP, STP, storage tanks, transmission systems, piping systems, chimney liners, etc. are cylindrical in shape. FRP can also be used for non-cylindrical applications such as diagonal profiles and non-cylindrical shaped applications. With all these cases, there are good features and characteristics in the design of the composite wastewater treatment package, which we will express.
The composite sewage treatment package has a good thickness.
Because it is made of composite, it has smooth surfaces.
Due to the insulation of the composite against heat and moisture, it is suitable for areas with high temperature and high humidity.
Composites have the potential to be combined with other materials and it is possible to change the compositions based on the intended conditions of the place of use.
The lightness of the composite wastewater treatment package
Due to its excellent and high resistance, the composite sewage treatment package can be buried under the soil and therefore does not require additional space.
The energy consumption of the composite wastewater treatment package is very low.
Because it follows new technology, odor leakage is reduced.
It is repairable and hence affordable.
It does not corrode.
The composite wastewater treatment package can operate under high pressure.
Application of composite wastewater treatment package
The composite wastewater treatment package is used for wastewater treatment plants, gray wastewater treatment, decentralized wastewater treatment in areas where there is no central wastewater treatment system, as well as liquid storage and agriculture.
Advantages of composite wastewater treatment package
Composite wastewater treatment packages require little space.
Upgrading and repairing them is easy, feasible and affordable.
Composite sewage treatment package can be found in the market.
Reducing the amount of CO2 released into the environment
The amount of solids and sludge production is reduced.
Due to the high strength of the composite wastewater treatment package, there is no need for special maintenance conditions.
It is easy to install, move and transport.
It has no annoying smell and noise.
Semi-automatic purification process
High quality, high performance, durable, light weight, easy to install and very convenient.
Factors affecting the price of composite wastewater treatment package
The cost of raw materials: the initial cost of making a composite sewage treatment package is equal to the cost of a concrete sewage treatment package or a metal sewage treatment package, but when the cost is long