What is desalinated water and what is its use?

Why is there still a need for desalination devices despite the abundance of water resources that exist in the world? Have you thought about the answer to this question? Yes, it is true that the surface of the sphere of time has been full of water resources since the beginning, so that it can be said that water makes up about 70%. Despite this level of water, most people in the world are still facing the problem of water shortage and this cannot be hidden.

It is necessary to know that all these water resources are salty and not usable, and to use them, the process of sweetening must be done, but in what way? Currently, there are special devices called desalinators that can supply the amount of fresh water used by people with their unique capabilities. In this article, we intend to examine the uses of this device and express the importance of its use and provide you with comprehensive and complete information.

What is a water softener?

The water desalination device is actually considered a type of filtration to separate salt from water molecules, which can easily perform this desalination with its unique capabilities. You may think to yourself that separating salt from water is very difficult and complicated, and we must say that you are absolutely correct in thinking that this process is very difficult, and special filters must be used to do this.

In the previous section, we mentioned that the water sources on the surface of the earth cannot be used, and this has led to the emergence of desalination devices. These devices use a special system called reverse osmosis and separate salt from water molecules. It is natural that after this separation the water becomes sweet, so this is where you can understand the high importance of these systems.

Types of water softeners

The requirements that existed in the direction of water desalination caused different samples of this device to be produced. Examples of water desalination devices that are currently widely used include the following, each of which has its own structure and characteristics.

Sea water desalination
Industrial desalination
Homemade fresh water

Desalination Homemade All devices that name They are not suitable for home use because they cannot be used in the environment He used the house. Today, you can see cities and villages that due to the lack of The plumbing does not have access to fresh water and they have to get their water from the spring and rivers to use. The bigger problem is that with the droughts that so far It has happened that these springs have also dried up and forced the public to extract water from They have made wells and aqueducts. These devices are based on Their advanced reverse osmosis structure is able to remove the salt in the fastest possible time separate the water from the molecules and cause the water to become sweet. One of the most important devices Home can be reverse osmosis desalination or so-called RO It is mentioned that it consists of a special structure and is made in small dimensions. Desalination marine Marine desalination for Water desalination is used in coastal areas. Due to population growth and water shortage Urban drinking in tropical and dry areas, using sea water purification devices is the best way to produce drinking water It is required in these areas. The sea water is very salty and its TDS is high. Waters whose TDS is greater than 30 and less than 40,000 mg/liter are It can be purified and sweetened by a seawater desalination machine. this The device also has pre-treatment stages and for this purpose it uses sand, carbon, microfilters and anthracite filters. to be The most important part in this water softener is the reverse osmosis membrane. Due to high salt content, high density, high PH and the amount of dissolved ions in sea water, in these devices from different equipments in comparison Used with industrial water softeners. High pressure pumps, membranes and piping are completely different in this device.

Distinctive features of marine desalination

Choosing the right water softener is very important, you may ask yourself how? In response to this question, we must say that each of the mentioned devices is used for a specific field. For example, you cannot use freshwater for domestic purposes because the dimensions and size of these devices do not allow you to do so.

As you know, sea water is salty and unusable, but desalination devices have made it possible to use this water, so there is no need to worry. Currently, the use of these devices can be seen in abundance, which sweeten the salt water of the sea with its unique capabilities and make it usable. Such capabilities make it impossible to simply ignore the advantages of these devices. But what features do these devices have?

The sea water desalination device has very high dimensions and to maintain it, one should think about providing enough space. These devices are mainly installed near the seas to carry out the desalination process and supply the water needed by the buildings and areas around the sea. You need to know that it has a higher price and will result in more costs for you.

fresh water Solar Ken Except for desalination Reverse osmosis, other devices have been designed and produced based on the heating process and distillation work. Since in this method of solar energy next to the flow Electricity used, HTH solar dehumidifier (solar desalination) is named. In this method, salt water is heated and turns into steam. But polluting particles and salts remain. Then water vapor The distillation process changes phase again and turns into a liquid. The product of this process is water it is sweet The time spent on this work is less than other methods. Also volume The water obtained is also more. Based on this, thermal desalination in Shirin It is used in vast waters such as sea water and oceans.
Water machine industrial sweet The second water you want to sweeten We are going to describe it in this article, it is an industrial water desalination device. Today, there are various industries in every country and these industries are to continue their activities They themselves need fresh water, but why is it necessary for factories to have fresh water? be For example, consider factories that are in the field of production and supply Food and edible products are active. Does the use of salt water lead to the deterioration of its products won’t it? In answer to this question, we must say exactly when you can’t drink fresh water By providing these industries, these food items are either of low quality or They get damaged. What is the solution now? The solution is to use It is an industrial fresh water machine that has all the necessary capabilities to convert salt water into water Shirin has and can be of great help to various industries in this regard to do These devices can be used for drinking water for employees and productions supply the factory and play a big role in the growth and progress of industries. From The most important distinguishing features of this type of water softener can be the large size And a wide dimension pointed out that you are required to provide an environment for the maintenance of The device does. You should be able to use water pumps to provide high water pressure as well Use it to move the water inside the device for sweetening.

Agricultural desalination

Using desalination in agricultural industries is the best solution to access fresh water. In recent years, due to the excessive consumption of water from wells and underground water in the past years, the salinity of water has increased and it is unusable for agricultural purposes and irrigation of greenhouses. Salt water with high TDS is harmful for watering plants and their soil and must be purified.
Agricultural water desalination devices are water purification devices that work based on the reverse osmosis process. Water from agricultural wells is the input to these devices. Then by applying pressure by the pump and passing the water through a semi-permeable membrane, the purification operation takes place and the water is completely purified. The obtained water is suitable for agricultural purposes and irrigation of greenhouses and does not harm the soil and plants. It should be noted that the accuracy of these devices is lower than that of household water softeners. Therefore, this water is not suitable for drinking.

The difference between desalination and water purification

Is the water softener the same as water purification? This is a question that is often asked. Sometimes it is mistakenly thought that these two devices are not much different and that water purification is the same as desalination, but you should know that water purification means desalination, but this is not the case and the word desalination only refers to a device that can have the ability to separate salt particles from water and turn the salt water of the seas into drinkable fresh water, otherwise, a device that only separates impurities and extra substances from water molecules but does not have the ability to sweeten it, the device It is called water purification. But if a water purifier has reverse osmosis technology, since reverse osmosis has the ability to sweeten, the titles of reverse osmosis water purifier and reverse osmosis water purifier can be considered equivalent. Remember that such a rule does not apply to other water purification methods that cannot produce fresh water, and the name of desalination is not applied to them.
It is good to know that unlike water purification devices that are not capable of desalination (except RO devices, of course), water softeners can both sweeten and purify heavy and polluted water.

Importance Use of water hardness Waters naturally have There are various salts such as calcium and magnesium that cause hardness in them. This hardness can make it difficult to use water and eventually to your household appliances including the washing machine. Hardeners built into these devices These salts have been removed and the water is completely purified and free of any hardness They are at your disposal.
Water connections sweeten it Desalination fittings with Paying attention to its type is different. But in general, water purifiers have the following parts: Floor pumps that are responsible for transferring water in reverse osmosis devices. The feed pump, which is the sand filter pump, is used for the pre-treatment stage take Pipes and fittings that are usually made of UPVC and prevent the formation of deposits and rust. the switch High pressure and low pressure that are installed on the device to protect the pump. Connections Steel like tees, conversions, nuts, etc Housing I see membrane or membrane filters Filters Sand, carbon, etc tank fiberglass Confused Pressure and flowmeter

Installation of water softener

Installing water treatment depending on the volume of water used, the desired area, dimensions
The device etc. is different. For example, household water purifiers are easy to use
You can install and run. But the design, construction and installation of industrial, semi-industrial water treatment, etc., require expert experts
is experienced It is also better to buy household water purifiers from reputable dealers
purchased and to use the warranty and after-sales service, its installation and operation
also delegate.

Filter replacement Desalination replacement Water softener filters are very important. This should work every one Two years should be replaced according to the volume of consumption. Otherwise, other parts of the device The pump is malfunctioning. Changing filters in different water purifiers is not easy It is not different. You can easily turn off the device to change the filters of home water softeners and close the water inlet valve to stop the flow. Open the outlet valve to the storage tank be empty Then open the housings in order using a special wrench. Old filter Take it out and wash the chamber well. Then wash the new filter with water and put it in the chamber put. Close the housing and go to the next filter. Finally, there should be a carbon phase Carry out the operation until the black water comes out of the device. To do this, you must enter the stage Disconnect the fourth from the device and turn on the device and connect the water inlet valve. the door Finally, let about 5 liters of water come out of the machine. Then you can take it Restore the circuit and start the device.

Water softener filter

In reverse osmosis desalination devices, sand, fiber, carbon, etc. filters are usually used for the pre-treatment stage. Then it’s time for reverse osmosis or semi-permeable RO membrane. For example, in home water softeners, triple filters are used before the reverse osmosis filter.
These filters are composed of fiber filter or propylene filter, active carbon powder or active carbon filter and one micron fiber filter respectively. These filters can remove coarse pollutants in water, including pipe rust, suspended particles, sludge, etc., and make the water free of chlorine and nitrate particles.

Desalination membranes

The membrane is the most important part in the water desalination device. In fact, these filters are the part where the main separation of suspended particles and dissolved salts takes place. This filter is produced from polyamide TFC, cellulose acetate CTA or a mixture of both. This membrane is wrapped as a thin film on a cylindrical tube and can separate more than 98% of particles in water. This filter should be replaced every one and a half to two years.

How the water softener works

Reverse osmosis systems are one of the best, most useful and economical devices designed and manufactured to sweeten and purify drinking water. These systems have a thin porous membrane that is responsible for separating suspended particles, ions and salts. The reverse osmosis method is one of the methods of desalination.
The separation method in the reverse osmosis process is completely physical and is done without any additives and only based on the difference in the charge and size of the particles in the water. In this method, by applying a pressure that is greater than the osmotic pressure difference, water molecules pass through the semi-permeable membrane and suspended particles and pollutants remain behind the membrane. In this way, the separation, sweetening and purification of water is done with the help of the reverse osmosis process.

Chemicals in reverse osmosis

Caustic soda and sulfuric acid: pH adjustment In very rare cases, the pH of the incoming water may be below 4 or above 10, in this case the membrane, which is the main filtration filter, will be damaged and its useful life will be reduced. Raising the pH to 7 or caustic soda is used to reduce the pH to 7.

SBS substance: sometimes in tap water treatment, after chlorine test, it is found that the incoming water has some chlorine, chlorine also damages the semi-permeable membranes of the membrane, and within a few months, the quality of the produced water, like the incoming water, decreases, for the future To solve this problem, a substance called SBS is used, which neutralizes water chlorine after injection with the correct dose.

Forbit (anti-scalant): anti-scalant means anti-fouling, a semi-acidic substance that is needed for all water purification devices and must be constantly injected into the system. This material prevents the deposition of concentrated materials in the membrane and protects the microscopic membranes of the membrane and significantly increases the useful life of the membrane. The correct amount of its use depends on the capacity of the device and the quality of the incoming water, which is determined after the installation and commissioning.

Chlorine: In some cases, the produced water of the device must be stored in tanks for a long time and may be poured and transported in several separate tanks before consumption. The required amount (between 1 and 4 ppm) of chlorine is injected to prevent secondary water pollution.

What is Dubai?

Dubai is a French word that is equivalent to the word water.
Flow rate refers to the volume of water that passes through a pipe in a certain time, unit flow rate
It has different values, such as liters per minute and cubic meters per day and night, etc., for size
To measure the flow rate, you can place a large tank whose volume is already known in front of the water pipe
And when the tank starts to fill, it starts a timer and the duration of filling
He measured the container, for example, if a container of 20
If a liter is filled for 10 seconds, the desired water flow rate will be 2 liters per second. Then the discharge can be obtained
Converted to different units. As an easy method after obtaining
We multiply the flow rate based on liters per second by 86.4 to get the flow rate based on cubic meters per day, in the table below.
Here are the conversions of different Dubai units:

1000 liters

1 cubic meter

1 liter per second

60 liters per minute

1 liter per second

3,600 liters per hour

1 liter per second

3.6 cubic meters per hour

1 liter per second

86.4 cubic meters per day

1 liter per minute

1.44 cubic meters per day

Water pressure is measured in bar and psi units. Each pressure is equivalent to 10 meters of vertical movement power inside the pipe, pressure
Water is the maximum power of water moving upwards until the flow becomes zero.
For example, if the water pipe is 10 meters long
It should be placed vertically and the water inside can be 10 meters
rises and leaves the pipe, the water pressure will be more than 1 bar, if the water can reach the top of the pipe
reaches but does not come out of the pipe, the water pressure will be exactly 1 bar, for a 10-story building that is 30 meters
It will take an average of 5 times
The pressure is needed so that the people on the last floor also have water with sufficient pressure.
Urban water pressure in residential areas is set twice on average.

Each water pipe according to its size
It places a limit on the volume of water it can convey, for a one-inch pipe
With a single pressure of about 1 liter
It transfers water per second, but a pipe 5
inch with a pressure load equal to 20 liters
will have per second.
For this reason, choosing the size of the pipe
It is done based on the desired flow rate and pressure. In the table below, help to choose the size
The tube comes:

Diameter pipe


flow rate (liters per second)

1 inch

1 time


1 inch

2 times


2 inches

1 time


2 inches

2 times


The main unit used for
The flow rate is cubic meters per day and the water purification devices are based on this and based on the type
Incoming water is categorized, for this reason, knowing the concept of flow and the ability to convert it into units
different and also the amount of water needed based on the unit of cubic meters per day is necessary.

What is TDS? TDS, abbreviated as total desolved solids, means total dissolved solids, which measures all organic and inorganic substances in water. The measurement unit of tds, ppm or points per million means units per million, for example, water with ppm 100 tds (packaged drinking water or mineral water) contains one hundred molecules of solid matter dissolved in water for every one million molecules of water. Of all the water on the planet, 97% is ocean water and only 3% is fresh water, a large amount of which is in the form of ice in the north and south poles or buried deep in the earth. and only 1.2% of the earth’s water is accessible fresh water. tds is the best measure of water quality to find the correct treatment method, based on the tds test result, the type of water treatment device, pre-treatment and main treatment stages can be determined. The table below shows some water samples and their tds based on ppm: water sample Tds (ppm) Distilled water 0 Water suitable for boilers and industrial coolers 0-50 Mineral or packaged water 50-150 WHO drinking water standard 50-500 Water suitable for use in livestock and poultry farming 500 tap water 200-2000 Surface water and wells 100 – 15000 Open water and ocean 48000 The tds test is almost simple and is done by the tds meter, by inserting the tds meter into the water, the tds value is determined in terms of ppm on the device, and the tds value of the produced water is also placed on the control panels of the water purifier. It shows All waters in nature are classified into 4 categories based on their tds value:   type of water TDS (ppm) fresh water Less than 1000 salty mouthwatering Between 1000 and 10000 Salty water Between 10,000 and 30,000 sea ​​water More than 30,000 According to the above table, water purifiers are divided into 3 categories in the same way. Brackish water purifier that turns brackish water into drinking water. Salt water purifier that turns salt water into drinking water. A sea water purifier that turns sea water into drinking water. As can be guessed, less energy is needed to purify saline water into drinking water than to purify sea water into drinking water. Of course, tds is not enough to fully understand the quality of water, for example, pollutants that exist in liquid form in water, such as petroleum and oily substances, as well as the radiation of radioactive substances, are not shown in the tds test, and for the use of water in sensitive industries, more tests are needed. be done on it.

Ati Sazan Arsham Sanat vanguard In the water and sewage industry